The Western ideas of privatization, autonomous markets and open capital accounts are challenged by state-controlled approaches to development in the countries of so-called Global South. Those developments have led to the conclusion, by some scholars, that the most liberal features of global governance order are being contested by rising powers Stephen, Economic and political inequality have long-lasting implications for governance both within and between states. Inequality in either form contributes to a rise in extremism and social unrest, and it also raises the questions of what responsibility the international community should bear for human development beyond just satisfying basic needs, that is, security, food and shelter.
In addition, the supply of development resources including official development assistance is also moving away from the old North towards the BRICs and other new official donors such as South Korea and Turkey, plus private foundations like the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, faith-based organizations, remittances from diasporas, heterogeneous SWFs and a plethora of Exchange-Traded Funds as well as novel sources of finance such as taxes on carbon, emissions, financial transactions and so forth Shaw, Thus, the observed changes in socio-economic and political aspects of the current world pose new questions and create new challenges for previously active participants of global policy processes, as well as for new actors of global governance.
Global governance actors will need to critically reflect on the relevance of earlier policy tools to rapidly changing conditions in the current world. Global governance is arguably inevitable for the survival of the human race in present and future generations. Although global governance sometimes appears fragile and ineffective in response to current challenges, the trend of globalization and the demand for global governance approaches have already passed the point of no return.
The future of global governance will be mainly shaped by the following five factors: individual empowerment, increasing awareness of human security, institutional complexity, international power shift and liberal world political paradigm. We draw this conclusion by applying the findings and observations from different field of studies including security studies, international political economy, global governance field and communications studies.
Individuals can attain higher awareness of situations related to national and international affairs. Compared with humans in the twentieth century, a majority of those in the twenty-first century can more easily access international security information, thanks to the Internet and media exposure. Therefore, individual citizens of the world are more likely to understand the importance and the impact of international security on their personal lives. Digital media played a major role in the Arab Spring of in Egypt and Tunisia: social networks allowed communities to unite around shared grievances and nurture transportable strategies for mobilizing against dictators Howard and Hussain, Globalization of the new media illustrates how communities throughout the world can be mobilized for collaborative response as well signals a new trend in the intersection of new media and conventional media such as television, radio and mobile phone Khondker, The US National Intelligence Council also identified individual issues and the decreasing influence of the state as one of the main global trends for the twenty-first century, arguing that the potential political power of individuals has significantly increased since the end of the Cold War because of the proliferation of information and transportation technologies National Intelligence Council, This trend will strengthen the convergence between domestic and international politics, constraining state behavior Putnam, and continue to produce many transnational actors.
Human security is an innovative concept for security in response to horizontal such as military, economic and political and vertical such as individual, state and global threats, which traditional security concepts cannot effectively control Grayson, The focal point of state security is too narrow to encompass the myriad threats that challenge societies today. The threat of sovereign states engaging in large-scale war is less probable today than at any time in modern history.
War has not been eliminated, rather its form has shifted from sovereign versus sovereign to substate wars between differing identity groups or insurgencies against the state. Beyond war, the concept of human security is concerned with varieties of security: economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community and political security UNDP Human security provides an excellent compatible conceptual paradigm to global governance regimes in the future, which must respond to transnational, multi-dimensional threats that a single country cannot manage.
For example, a number of national security analysts have already begun to recognize environmental degradation and natural disasters such as epidemics, floods, earthquakes, poverty and droughts as national security threats similar to military disasters King and Murray, — As the trend of individual empowerment gains more momentum, the influence of civil society is expected to grow in terms of authority and resources.
Fourth, global governance in the future will be also be shaped by power shifts in international relations. Almost all the traditional institutions of global governance were initiated by Western countries, and their pluralistic political culture and influential civil societies have shaped the political context of global governance. States of the Global South, especially China, have improved their relative power in relation to the Global North.
As a result, the voice of actors originating from the Global South is expected to become more prominent in global governance regimes and institutions traditionally dominated by a small number of the Global North states. Therefore, an increase in multilateralism will further complicate the face of global governance. Fifth, the future of global governance is also rooted in liberal paradigms of world politics. States and non-state or transnational actors tend to be more cooperative with global governance when a liberal world order is maintained. Global governance regimes to date have evolved with liberal paradigms such as democracy, bottom-up orientations and human rights promotion.
While the advancement of democratic practices in the states without strong traditions of following liberal values remain a challenge, democracy has near-universal appeal among people of every ethnic group, every religion, and every region of the world and democracy is embraced as an international norm by more states, transnational organizations and international networks McFaul, Liberal approaches challenge the traditional concept of the state as a unified unitary actor that lacks adverse interpretation of national interest.
Social Media = Revolution?
Accordingly, even in traditional security areas, there are more spaces for international cooperation. Global security governance through intergovernmental institutions such as the UN, International Atomic Energy Agency and International Criminal Court has made considerable progresses and gained more influence.
If the realist paradigm dominates national security, however, the world would have to overcome deep uncertainty and doubt about the effectiveness of global governance. As a result, global governance today and in the future will be in the face of such serious threats as US—China hegemony rivalry, US—Russia military confrontation and Middle East conflicts. Nevertheless, as long as global society retains liberal paradigms powerful enough to offset the negative effects of mutually suspicious realist paradigms, global governance will continue to generate into effective hybrid regimes that hold the potential of creating a future world that is more cooperative, sustainable and secure.
Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study. How to cite this article : Rashchupkina Y Global governance: present and future. Palgrave Communications. The Review of International Organizations ; 5 3 : — Palgrave Macmillan : New York. Bhagwati J In Defense of Globalization. Oxford University Press : New York. Annual Review of Environment and Resources ; 33 , — Global Governance ; 17 , — Dingwerth K and Pattberg P Global governance as a perspective on world politics. Global Governance ; 12 2 : — It pictures a future in which the democratic role of the media, freedom of expression and democratic participation can be enhanced.
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Social and media development is, however, very uneven in different Russian provinces, varying from near subsistence farmers with access to just analogue TV channels and no Internet to highly networked and cosmopolitan major cities. On a global scale, given the denial for two decades to Russian television of broadcasting frequencies in most post-Soviet countries, the government launched Russia Today as a news provider which is rapidly emerging as a major transnational satellite channel.
Meanwhile, and against the trend of most other Russian industries, the Russian Internet industry has been very successful. Only China has rivaled Russia in building its own prominent Internet industry, but it has done so through the defensive Chinese firewall. Russia is the only country where local Internet businesses have beaten global giants without any protective barriers, with Yandex search engine more popular in Russia than Google, while Vkontakte and Odnoklassniki social networking sites are attracting much larger local audiences than Facebook.
Nevertheless, the Russian government is facing a challenging choice with regard Internet management. Attempts to increase Internet control through pro-government ownership of Russian social media sites such as LiveJournal and VKontakte might drive a key segment of the news reading Internet audience to foreign competitors such as Facebook.
The result has been a dramatic polarization of Russian audiences between a loyal majority and a critical minority both online and offline. This policy coupled with state support of Internet-based creativity, has encouraged the Russian IT sector to move away from politically sensitive issues.
By mid, China had over 2, newspaper titles, nearly 10, periodicals, more than television stations with nearly 3, channels, with an audience reach of 1. Regional media conglomerates such as the Shanghai Media and Entertainment Group, the Guangdong Nanfang Media Group and Hunan Satellite Television have also been highly influential in spearheading institutional reform, operational innovations, and content diversification. Unlike in Russia, since the late s, the Chinese state has systematically aimed to build the size and strength of its media and communication operations.
Yet, the more the Chinese media system evolves, the more the Community Party of China emphasizes its Leninist founding principles. Yet each framework has its own historical and geopolitical context. In the aftermath of the global economic crisis, the Chinese state elevated the media, communication, Internet and cultural industries as a driver of economic restructuring Hong forthcoming. No other issue has received as much strategic emphasis by consecutive Chinese leaderships in the past three decades.
Traditionally, Sweden has had high voter turnout, and high levels of literacy and newspaper reading, not least due to the national subsidy system for print newspapers, which have resulted in a plurality of local newspapers with high readership. Typically, the subsidy system provided for a plurality of political positions, with at least two local or regional newspapers representing two political viewpoints.
Like other European countries, Sweden has had a strong public service broadcaster for radio and TV, which since the late s has faced strong competition from commercial broadcasters. The communications infrastructure has been well developed, with high penetrations of landline phones, mobile phones and computers.
Newspapers are today facing dramatic declines in readership, and advertising has migrated to the Internet. News consumption has also migrated from traditional press to social media such as Facebook and Twitter. The digitization of media contents in particular has changed the power dynamics within the media industries, with the telecommunications industries acquiring increased importance because of their centrality to Wi-Fi and broadband networks.
This infrastructural power was highlighted in , when TeliaSonera closed an exclusive deal with Facebook for free surfing through their networks, perceived as unfair competition by Swedish news publishers in print and broadcasting and contrary to the EU regulation on net neutrality compare Section 6 on Facebook India. Because of its well-developed infrastructure for high-speed Internet, Sweden is also known as a safe haven for Internet piracy, with The Pirate Bay party TPB its most prominent symbol Larsson ; Andersson Schwarz acting as a focus for debates on media governance issues.
Country case study three: South Africa. South African media are arguably the most technologically advanced on the African continent, offering a wide range of content across print, broadcast and digital platforms. Its media landscape involves a three-tiered model of public, commercial and community media. South Africa became a democracy in , with its early period post-independence from Britain better seen as the continuation of colonialism in internal form the apartheid system Visser The changes that South African public broadcasting has undergone illustrate some of these shifts.freightcoin.burnsforce.com/35084-microsoft-negocio.php
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The Windhoek Declaration in signalled a move towards greater independence of broadcasting continent-wide, even if in some countries like Zimbabwe there has been a deterioration in recent years Kupe The Windhoek Declaration coincided with the period of negotiated transition in South Africa, which saw the SABC adopting a public service mandate and media freedom entrenched in the new Constitution. The SABC has however never been fully publicly funded, and is largely dependent on commercial funding Kupe Other negative signs have been the proposal of a statutory Media Appeals Tribunal which would impose harsher sanctions on offending journalists and Protection of State Information Bill which could criminalize whistleblowers, investigative journalists, and civil society activists who access information classified by the government as secret R2K South Africa led the way in newspaper development in Anglophone Africa, with the publication of the Cape Town Gazette in Karikari , and a centuries-old private commercial press.
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Under apartheid, mainstream newspapers either supported the regime the Afrikaans-language press or provided a limited critique the English press , while an alternative, underground press engaged in a more radical critique of apartheid and faced harassment, censure and closures. Democratization largely eliminated the parallelism between language and political orientation, and most South African newspapers adopted a watchdog approach to the government and reflected a liberal, commercial consensus.