The souls of those who indulged the senses and emotions will perish with their bodies. According to the Treatise on Resurrection , although Maimonides believed in resurrection, he considered it a temporary condition wherein the souls of the righteous remain before they depart from the physical world entirely.
The threat to traditional religious beliefs presented by Maimonidean intellectualism was not met successfully until the late fourteenth century, in the Or Adonai Light of the Lord of Hasdai Crescas. Crescas attacked the theory of the soul as being a form coextensive with the physical body. He also rejected the assumption that reason is the characteristic feature of the human soul. He argued that the will and the emotions are basic parts of human nature and not merely bodily distractions to be discarded with the flesh, which survive the death of the body and play a part in determining the ultimate condition and fate of the soul.
He contended that religious teaching and practice are correctly directed at shaping the will and the emotions, rather than the reason. According to Qabbalah, a person is a spiritual being whose body is merely an external wrapping. The nefesh is the vital element and enters the body at birth; it dominates the physical and psychological aspects of the self. The neshamah is the highest part of the soul and is produced through study of the Torah and observation of the commandments. Torah study awakens the higher centers, through which the individual attains the capacity to apprehend God and the secrets of creation.
According to Gershom Scholem, Qabbalah took this division of the soul primarily from Jewish Neoplatonism and introduced theosophic and mythic elaborations. In Qabbalah the neshamah is that part of the soul that consists of the spark of the divine and is exclusively concerned with the knowledge of God. According to the fundamental text of thirteenth-century qabbalistic literature, the Zohar , each part of the soul originates in the world of the sefirot the emanations of God.
Nefesh originates in the sefirah Malkhut "kingdom" , the lowest emanation, which corresponds to the Congregation of Israel. Neshamah emerges from the third sefirah , Binah "understanding". The sefirot are assigned male and female aspects, and the soul has its origins in a union of these male and female archetypes and takes on masculine and feminine forms only in its emanations downward.
Psalms These were assigned higher levels than the neshamah and could be acquired only by spiritually evolved individuals. The soul of the Messiah, which was on the level of yehidah , had its source in the sefirah Keter "crown" , the highest of the emanations. In the thought of Isaac Luria — and his disciples, the doctrine of metempsychosis was incorporated into concepts of the nature and destiny of creation and the mission of the Jewish people.
The task of tiun , that is, the restoration or reintegration into the divine pattern of existence of the flawed material universe, is entrusted to human souls, who seek out and redeem the scattered sparks of divinity in the world. Most souls are given repeated chances to achieve this task, thus constituting a kind of reincarnation, which earlier Jewish mystics had considered primarily a form of punishment or expiation for sins.
In the Lurianic system, ritual commandments are important for achieving tiun , both for the individual soul and for the whole world. Walther Eichrodt provides a useful treatment of Israelite views of the human personality and the problem of death in Theology of the Old Testament , 2 vols. Philadelphia, — ; see pages — and — in volume 2.
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Louis Ginzberg offers an incomparable survey of the entire postbiblical period in The Legends of the Jews , 7 vols. His survey includes the intertestamental literature and the writings of the church fathers on biblical events, as well as Jewish sources through the nineteenth century.
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On concepts involving the soul, see especially pages — , , and — in volume 1; pages — "Retribution after Death" , , and — "Eschatology" in volume 2; and pages note , — , and — in volume 3. A more advanced and detailed work then Moore's, and one covering a longer period, is E. The chapter titled "Man" in volume 1 covers in great detail the Talmudic and Midrashic views on ensoulment, preexistence, and embryonic consciousness, as well as related concepts, and attempts to determine the relative and absolute chronologies of statements and their attribution in the sources. Notes on pages — in volume 2 and the bibliography, pages — , cite many earlier secondary studies.
Articles on the Jewish concept of the soul from the Encyclopedia Judaica Jerusalem, have been collected together with new material, in a single volume; Jewish Philosophers , edited by Steven T. Katz New York, On the philosophy of Philo, see Harry A. Cambridge, Mass. For the concept of the soul during this period, a useful but rather narrowly focused volume is Philip David Bookstaber's The Idea of Development of the Soul in Medieval Jewish Philosophy Philadelphia, Arbel, Daphna V.
Baumgarten, A. Assmann, and G. Self, Soul, and Body in Religious Experience. Leiden and Boston, ,. Blau, Yitzchak. Eylon, Dina Ripsman. Reincarnation in Jewish Mysticism and Gnosticism. Jewish Studies, no. Lewiston, N. Kallus, Menachem.
Detroit, Newmyer, Stephen T. Rubin, Nissan. Tucker, Gordon.
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Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. October 8, Retrieved October 08, from Encyclopedia. Natural High Bloodstone. The Rubberband Man The Spinners. Love Ballad George Benson. Bootzilla Bootsy Collins. Mighty Love The Spinners. In the Rain The Dramatics.
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Postman The Marvelettes. Pride And Joy Marvin Gaye. All I Need The Temptations. Mickeys Monkey The Miracles. In his work as a philologist, Barfield discovered that words, so far as they can be traced back, never pointed to physical things alone or acted as arbitrary symbols.
They always seem to have had both physical and inner meanings, and to have had an aboriginal poetic charge. Thinkers as different as the American transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson and the British utilitarian Jeremy Bentham took similar note. Pneuma is an example of an old word that originally had an immaterial and material meaning. Today, it has two distinct meanings.
Zevon’s The Wind Amazing Testament To Soul’s Honesty
It refers to a physical organ, akin to a pump, housed a little on the left side of the chest cavity. Only, the evidence points in the opposite direction. The felt meaning is as old as the word itself because, in ancient use, the heart is not regarded as a pump but as the seat of the emotions.